How this enslaved African from Mozambique became Japan’s first black Samurai

A depiction of Yasuke serving his Japanese hegemon and warlord master Oda Nobunaga

The transatlantic slave trade perpetrated by Europeans from the 16th century blessed Japan reportedly with its first black man who rose through the elite ranks to make history as the country’s first black Samurai.

Yasuke, as he was called, is believed to have been born in Mozambique around 1555. He served as a slave under the Italian Jesuit Alessandro Valignano.

Valignano, who was in charge of the Jesuit missions (a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain) in East Africa, South and East Asia, travelled to Japan with Yasuke in 1579.

The presence of the black man who was taller than the regular Japanese and believed to have the strength of ten men caused a stir and gave Yasuke an audience with the Japanese hegemon and warlord Oda Nobunaga.

According to a 1581 letter written by Jesuit Luís Fróis to Lourenço Mexia, Yasuke was presented to Nobunaga who suspected his skin was coloured with black ink. He had him strip and scrub his skin to prove his claim. This was also recorded in the 1582 Annual Report of the Jesuit Mission in Japan.

Nobunaga took a keen interest in Yasuke when he was convinced his skin was in fact black. He added him to his servants and enjoyed talking to him, according to many Japanese books.

The archives of the Japanese Maeda Samurai clan noted that “the black man was given his own residence and a short, ceremonial katana [Samurai sword] by Nobunaga. Nobunaga also assigned him the duty of weapon bearer.”

In 1582, Yasuke fought alongside the Nobunaga-led forces in the tribal battle called Battle of Tenmokuzan. Nobunaga was attacked and he was forced to commit seppuku [Japanese ritual suicide].

After Nobunaga’s death, Yasuke was eventually captured by the rival clan which described him as an animal and not Japanese. His life was spared and he was returned to the Jesuits.

There is no account of the rest of Yasuke’s life and how he died. However, he has been depicted in many artworks by 16th-century Japanese artists who painted him in service and also in sumo wrestling matches.

Yasuke also appeared in a 1968 Japanese children’s historical fiction book by Yoshio Kurusu, movies, books and many publications.

It was announced in March 2017 that Lionsgate Films and Michael De Luca will produce a film about Yasuke written by Gregory Widen.

This article by Ismail Akwei was first published on

The journey of an Egyptian doctor who backpacked to 9 African countries in 120 days

Egyptian doctor Ahmed Abdelkader who backpacked around the continent for 120 days in 9 countries

One lucky traveller is Egyptian doctor Ahmed Abdelkader who backpacked around the continent for 120 days in 9 countries and contributed to the establishment of an NGO to promote healthcare and education for kids. Africa is a beautiful continent of 54 countries with diverse cultures but similar values. Travelling around the continent is the best experience one can ever have in a lifetime.

He shared his experience with Face2Face Africa below:

Growing up in a small town in Egypt, I was eager to find out what life is like outside of the boundaries I knew. I spent hours looking through National Geographic magazines and maps trying to figure out how people live in deserts, on mountain slopes, in lush forests. Chasing my dream, I started working as a travel organizer and also had many trips on my own. Today, I‘d like to share with you the experience that has changed my life. Hi, my name is Ahmed, and this is a story about my journey around Africa.

The goal of my trip was to discover similarities and differences in the lives of people scattered in remote parts of the continent. I was especially keen on learning cultural, religious, and traditional aspects of various nationalities. There are thousands of kilometers between the countries I’ve visited but I was delighted to find things that unite all of us.

For me, Africa was a huge unexplored continent promising never-to-be-forgotten impressions. From endless golden sands of deserts, acacia-covered plains, islets of pristine nature to vibrant national marketplaces, Africa has a lot to wow travelers with. Since the very first day of my trip, I realized that Africa was stashing hidden gems at every turn. That’s why my experience became even more unexpected, colorful, and enjoyable when I abandoned a clear plan. The only thing I knew for sure was that I wanted to travel from Kenya to Uganda, stopping by at 7 more countries in between – Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Congo, and Uganda.

With a little patience, an adventurous attitude, and perseverance, I managed to reach every milestone of my journey. Countless times I found myself in the middle of nowhere, hundreds of kilometers away from the nearest village but there was always a pick-up, bus, van, or even tractor to pick me up and deliver me closer to my ultimate goal.

The media have portrayed a rather negative image of Africa imbued with poverty, conflicts, inequality, and a multitude of social and political issues coming to the fore. Indeed, Africa has a long way to go towards stability and peace, but the continent is much more than that. Strong, sympathetic, and hardy people living there is its main asset. I was struck by their cordiality, hospitality, and desire to help me, a stranger, as if they had known me all their lives.

Once, I thought that sub-Saharan countries would look alike. Well, I couldn’t be more wrong. Now I know that Africa is inhabited by thousands of ethnic groups and tribes who speak more than 2000 languages and boast of drastically divergent cultures. Nowhere else in the world can you find such diversity? Crossing thousands of kilometers and borders, you will come in contact with numerous dialects from English to Swahili, fasten on Orthodox churches and Muslim mosques, check out modern hipster areas with all blessings of modernity or vice versa.

I must admit that traveling around Africa is not always fun. A lot of time it is frustrating, disappointing, and bewildering. You never know what a new day will bring – your bus may break down, you might catch one of the local diseases, your backpack along with all it possesses might suddenly disappear into thin air – this is only a brief list of ‘surprises’ lying in wait for you in the continent. On the other hand, this mix of pleasure and pain is what makes your experience truly valuable.

Remember the most important rule of traveling along Africa – you have to bargain. No matter what country you get to, the first thing in the morning is to learn the name of the currency and numbers in the local language. Believe me, this knowledge will come in handy because as soon as the natives figure out you are a foreigner, prices will instantly skyrocket. You must fully master the art of bargaining; otherwise, the journey will cost you an arm and a leg in the end.

Despite all the challenges, this trip had a huge impact on me and changed my outlook completely. Scrolling through the photos taken in Africa, I can hardly realize that all this happened to me. Every bus ride on bumpy roads I took, every café or hostel I explored, and every people I met on my way made me understand how rich I am with what I own. Life is frantic, chaotic, fleeting, we are constantly worried about what is going to be tomorrow while forgetting to enjoy moments we have now. The African way of life taught me to meet every new day with gratitude, joy, and excitement.

Be spontaneous, be ready for any adventures, and try to comprehend people around you, both Africans and travelers like you. No matter how much time you spend on this beautiful continent, be it days, weeks, or months, learn to appreciate every moment, because you will start craving for more as soon as your trip is over.

Traveling around Africa all by myself, I found it to be the best experience, and here’s why:

1. The world is not as bad as it seems.

The media is persistently trying to convince us that the world is not ok. It’s time to bust this myth. There is a lot of good stuff around us and you, as a tourist, have a chance to get to know it.

2. There is nothing worse than our “comfort zone”.

If you are always in your own cocoon, you will never learn anything other than this. It can be nice and cozy there but it won’t let you think outside the box, won’t allow meeting new people, and won’t give a chance to broaden your mind. Only when traveling solo, you immerse yourself in a completely uncharted environment, comprehend a new experience, and develop yourself as a multi-faceted person.

3. The best possessions are, in fact, non-material.

We live in the material world where a good car or a house is a sign of status, where manufacturers force us to buy a new phone every year, and fashion brands make us throw out barely worn jeans because they are ‘out of style’. But keep in mind that we can’t take our gadgets, belongings, and money to the grave. When your day comes, what will you remember – your past possessions or your experience? Just by embarking on a trip you’ll enrich your life with indelible impressions.

4. Traveling is an opportunity to make your contribution to society.

When visiting a new place, we always take a piece of it in our heart. Along with that, you can leave your mark wherever you go, either in the memory of people or through the good deeds you do. Having met volunteers during one of my trips, I realized that each of us can do many good things for people who need our help.

5. Our lives are in our own hands – that’s the most precious lesson you learn when traveling.

Africa is a striking continent with vast open spaces, diverse landscapes, and beautiful people whose positive attitude is contagious. Africa is where you can find:

– The most diverse nature ranging from deserts, Savannah, beaches, to impassable thickets;

– More than 600 species of animals and countless species of plants;

– Food harvested in the jungle;

– Authentic art, dance, and music;

– Opportunities for volunteering;

– Good-natured, friendly, unspoiled people who are always happy to see you

Come to Africa and you’ll love it as much as I do!

This article by Ismail Akwei was first published on

The forgotten radical black liberation fighters who are still in jail after 40 years

Members of the Black Panther Party, stripped, handcuffed, and arrested after Philadelphia police raided the Panther headquarters, August, 1970. Credit: Courtesy of Urban Archives, Temple University

It was all radical and bloody in the 1970s when the black liberation fighters struggle was at its peak in the United States. The violence was spurred by the incessant racism and disregard of the rights of black people despite laws that protected the race after over 200 years in slavery.

The liberation struggle gave birth to militant groups like Philadelphia-based MOVE founded by John Africa in 1972 and the Black Panther Party founded in late October 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale drawing on experiences working with a variety of Black Power organizations. Its militant wing called the Black Liberation Army.

As members of the police force were killed in black communities for using excessive force and killing black people, members of the militant groups later classified as terrorist organisations were killed for their aggression towards racism and police brutality while others were jailed for crimes they never committed.

A typical example is the case of Elmer “Geronimo Ji Jaga” Pratt who was a member of the Black Panther Party. He was arrested after the 1968 murder of a 27-year-old elementary school teacher, Caroline Olsen, perpetrated by two men on a tennis court during an $18 robbery in Santa Monica, California.

In 1972, the FBI used a secret informant to help convict Pratt of a murder he did not commit. Pratt had maintained throughout his trial that he was in Oakland during the night of the murder.

He was released in 1997 by a California Superior Court judge on the grounds that the informant had lied about working for the government and the information was not shared with the defense. He also won a $4.5 million civil rights settlement against the FBI and the Los Angeles Police Department.

This is just one of a few cases that resulted in the release of members of black liberation groups who have been jailed for crimes they deny knowledge of after 40 years in prison.

Over two years, Ed Pilkington, the chief reporter for Guardian US, has interviewed a number of black people labelled radicals who are still in prison since the 1970s.

Some of them are members of MOVE who were convicted 25 years to life for killing cops in 1971. Some of the jailed fighters have died in prison while the remaining maintain their innocence and complain of unfair trials, cover-ups and a deliberate attempt by the government keep them in jail till their death as they are denied parole.

Here are some of the black radicals spotlighted by Ed Pilkington who are still in prison after four decades.

1.Mumia Abu-Jamal (Wesley Cook) – former Black Panther

Age: 64

Incarcerated since: 1981

Convicted of: Murder of Philadelphia police officer Daniel Faulkner

Sentence: Life without parole

Current prison: SCI Mahanoy, Pennsylvania

2. Delbert Orr Africa – MOVE

Age: 72

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

3. Eddie Goodman Africa – MOVE

Age: 68

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Mahanoy, Pennsylvania

4. Janet Holloway Africa – MOVE

Age: 67

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania

5. Janine Phillips Africa – MOVE

Age: 62

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania

6.Jalil Muntaqim (Anthony Bottom) – former Black Panther, Black Liberation Army member

Age: 66

Incarcerated since: 1971

Convicted of: Murders of police officers Waverly Jones and Joseph Piagentini

Sentence: 25 years to life

Current prison: Sullivan Correctional Facility, New York

7. Mutulu Shakur – associated with Black Panther party and other groups

Age: 67

Incarcerated since: 1986

Convicted of: Helping Black Panther Party member Assata Shakur escape from prison in 1979

Sentence: 60 years

Current prison: Federal Correctional Complex, Victorville, California

8. Russell ‘Maroon’ Shoatz – former Black Panther

Age: 74

Incarcerated since: 1970

Convicted of: Murder of Philadelphia police sergeant Frank Von Colln

Sentence: Life without parole

Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

9. Sundiata Acoli (Clark Squire) – former Black Panther, Black Liberation Army member

Age: 81

Incarcerated since: 1973

Convicted of: Murder of New Jersey state trooper Werner Foerster

Sentence: Life plus 30 years consecutively

Current prison: FCI Cumberland, Maryland

10. Chuck Sims Africa – MOVE

Age: 59

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

11. Michael Davis Africa – MOVE

Age: 62

Incarcerated since: 1978

Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege

Sentence: 30 years to life

Current prison: SCI Graterford, Pennsylvania

12. Joseph Bowen – former Black Liberation Army member

Age: 70

Incarcerated since: 1971

Convicted of: Murder of police officer, and later murder of two prison officers

Sentence: Life without parole

Current prison: SCI Coal Township, Pennsylvania

13. Veronza Bowers Jr – former Black Panther

Age: 72

Incarcerated since: 1973

Convicted of: Murder of US park ranger Kenneth Patrick

Sentence: Life

Current prison: Federal Correctional Complex, Butner, North Carolina

14. Fred ‘Muhammad’ Burton – former Black Liberation Army member

Age: 71

Incarcerated since: 1970

Convicted of: Murder of police officer, and later murder of two prison officers

Current prison: SCI-Somerset, Pennsylvania

Sentence: Life

15. Romaine ‘Chip’ Fitzgerald – former Black Panther

Age: 69

Incarcerated since: 1969

Convicted of: Murder of security guard and attempted murder of a highway patrol officer

Sentence: Two life sentences

Current prison: California state prison, Los Angeles County

16. Ruchell ‘Cinque’ Magee

Age: 65

Incarcerated since: 1963

Convicted of: Aggravated kidnapping in 1970 courthouse break-out attempt in which Judge Harold Haley was killed

Sentence: Life without parole

Current prison: California Men’s Colony, San Luis Obispo, California

17. Ed Poindexter – former Black Panther

Age: 73

Incarcerated since: 1970

Convicted of: Murder of Omaha police officer Larry Minard

Sentence: Life

Current prison: Nebraska State Penitentiary, Lincoln, Nebraska

18. Kojo Bomani Sababu (Grailing Brown) – former Black Liberation Army member

Age: 65

Incarcerated since: 1975

Convicted of: Murder of drug dealer, attempted prison escape

Sentence: Life

Current prison: USP Canaan, Pennsylvania

19. Kamau Sadiki (Freddie Hilton) – former Black Panther

Age: 65

Incarcerated since: 2002

Convicted of: Murder in 1971 of Atlanta police officer James Green

Sentence: Life

Current prison: Augusta State Medical Prison, Georgia

Below is a video of one of Ed Pilkington’s interviews with black liberation fighters still in prison. 

This article by Ismail Akwei was first published on

Meet the Senegalese cybergeek who won $375,000 for hacking Tesla 3 and other products

Amat Cama, Senegalese security researcher

It was a successful hackathon for Senegalese cyber security consultant and researcher, Amat Cama, who won a total of $375,000 in cash for exposing bugs in the Tesla Model 3 car and other products in Vancouver, Canada.

Together with his teammate, Richard Zhu, Team Fluoroacetate – as they called themselves – was the only one to sign up for the first-ever automotive hacking at the Pwn2Own hacking competition held in March during the CanSecWest 2019 security conference.

Tesla Model 3 on show.

They targeted Tesla’s infotainment system which had the smallest reward and managed to display a message on the car’s web browser by exploiting a just-in-time (JIT) bug in the renderer component.

This fete earned them $35,000 and a Tesla. They won the extra $340,000 by exploiting vulnerabilities in Safari, Oracle VirtualBox, VMware Workstation, Firefox, and Microsoft Edge.

Amat Cama and his teammate were crowned Master of the Pwn for 2019 and they won the largest share of the $900,000 on offer by the organizers, Zero Day Initiative (ZDI), who paid $545,000 during the entire event for 19 bugs.

All the vulnerabilities exploited have been reported to vendors who have been given 90 days to release patches before Zero Day Initiative (ZDI) can disclose details of the most interesting vulnerabilities.

Amat Cama, popularly known as Acez, is an alumnus of Northeastern University in Boston where he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and Computer Science in 2014. He has worked with several cybersecurity firms in the United States including VSR and Qualcomm as a Security Engineer.

It all started in Dakar, Senegal for Cama who attended the Enko Waca International School (formerly West African College of the Atlantic) – a bilingual, secular and mixed institution that opened in 1996 in Ouakam. He studied Physics, Mathematics, Economics, French, English and Spanish and then graduated in 2010 with an International Baccalaureate.

In Dakar, he taught children at the S.O.S Kids’ Village and Talibou Dabo Center before getting admission to the Northeastern University where he was a member of the Cyber Defense Team and the Capture the Flag (CTF) Team. CTF is a computer security competition designed to attack and defend computer systems.

The avid CTF player was part of the Shellphish CTF team that took part in the DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge as well as a number of other competitions.

Amat Cama moved to Beijing City in 2017 after leaving Qualcomm to take up the job of Senior Security Researcher at the Beijing Chaitin Technology Co., Ltd. He left after eight months to work as an independent security researcher and consultant with an immense interest in hacking contests which are very lucrative.

The certified offensive security wireless professional with sharp reverse engineering, penetration testing and programming skills has won several awards in contests including the 2016 Hall of Fame prize at Geekpwn Shanghai for his demo of a remote exploit against the Valve Source engine.

In 2017, he successfully demonstrated a baseband exploit against the Samsung Galaxy S8 at Mobile Pwn2Own in Tokyo as an individual contestant. In the 2018 Pwn2Own contest in Tokyo, Amat Cama and his teammate were crowned Master of Pwn after winning over $200,000.

In total, he has won 19 awards and honours in competitions since 2011 with total cash rewards of over a million dollars. Cama is also a licensed private pilot.

This article by Ismail Akwei was first published on

The sad aftermath of the death of Ghana’s first president Kwame Nkrumah

Kwame Nkrumah

… No talking drum announced this tragedy to his own people in mournful tones. No gong-gong summoned any familiar face to his side. No dirges recounted a litany to his praise. No linguist was present to recite any of his numerous appellations in eloquent and ornate language. Ironically, “Osagyefo,” “Kwame Atoapem,” “Show Boy” lay cold and still in a lonely infirmary among a strange people he did not know. His own people had rejected him and put a price on his head as a common criminal 10. Ghana, the land which he risked everything to free from bondage, had stabbed a deadly wound in his heart. Like the stab of Brutus to Caesar, it was “the most unkindest cut of all”; for as we knew Brutus to be Caesar’s angel, so was Ghana dearest to Nkrumah’s heart. And like Caesar, struggling in excruciating pain till he fell beneath the statue of Pompey, so did Nkrumah struggle alone in the agony of death, till he gave up his weary soul to its Maker in the Bucharest infirmary. “And what a fall was there there, my countrymen, that deny you and I and all.” Ghana and Africa fell.

These were the words of Accra’s Weekly Spectator journalist Kwabena Kissi in an article titled: “Nkrumah, the Leader We Never Understood.”

The article was published following the death of Ghana’s deposed leader, 62-year-old Kwame Nkrumah, on April 27, 1972, in a hospital in Bucharest, Romania, where he was undergoing medical treatment since August 1971.

He is reported to have died of prostate cancer with no family member by his side after months of failing health following the mysterious death of his cook in Conakry, Guinea, where he was exiled after his overthrow in 1966.

The cause of his death has been an issue of contention as Nkrumah himself believed he was not safe from Western intelligence agencies and had suspicions of being poisoned.

Guinea, the country that made Nkrumah a Co-president for his immense support after French political and financial abandonment in 1958, held Nkrumah dearly after his overthrow and during his ill health.

Nkrumah’s wife, Fathia, was living in her home country Egypt with their three children after the coup that expelled them from Ghana.

His first son, Dr. Francis Nkrumah who is now a professor, visited his ailing father in Guinea intermittently from Ghana where he lectured at the University of Ghana.

The Ghana government after Nkrumah’s overthrow led by Dr. Kofi Abrefa Busia rejected pleas from Guinea between 1970 and 1971 to allow Nkrumah to return home for treatment after his ill health surfaced.

Kofi Abrefa Busia

In January 1972, the government was overthrown by Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong of the National Redemption Council (NRC) who adopted a pro-Nkrumahist stance of Pan-Africanism. Three months after the coup, Nkrumah died after efforts to bring him to Ghana proved futile due to the seriousness of his illness.

Guinea, in turn, refused to return the body of its Co-president, until some demands were met. Sekou Toure vowed to send the body to Ghana for the dignified burial promised by the coup leader only after his demands were met.

According to reports at the time, the demands included the lifting of all charges pending against Nkrumah, release of all Nkrumah supporters from prison, removal of threats against Nkrumah’s followers who remained with him in exile and an official welcome of Nkrumah’s remains with all the honours due a deceased president, among other demands.

Colonel Acheampong who had just assumed the position of leadership of the country refused to negotiate on those terms and continued to demand the return of the body.

Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong

It is reported that the Ghana police had offered a reward of $120,000 to anyone who brought Nkrumah back to Ghana, dead or alive. The NRC claimed that the reward was posted before they took over the country. They added that they had revoked it “in the spirit of the January 13 Revolution”. West Africa (London) May 12, 1972, p. 575.

Nkrumah’s family including his aged mother Elizabeth Nyaniba pleaded with Sekou Toure to return the body of Nkrumah.

According to a paper published in the American Universities Field Staff Reports – West Africa Series in 1972 by Victor D. Du Bois and titled The Death of Kwame Nkrumah, Toure had imposed even more impossible conditions such as the placing of Nkrumah’s tomb in front of Ghana’s Parliament building and the restoration of Nkrumah’s appointees to their former positions.

It took the pleas from Presidents William Tolbert of Liberia, Siaka Stevens of Sierra Leone, and General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria to persuade Toure to return the body, but not until a state funeral in Guinea.

Thousands of Guineans lined the eight-mile route from the airport to the center of Conakry on Saturday, April 29, 1972, when Nkrumah’s body arrived from Bucharest. The body was driven to the state house and laid in state.

Nkrumah’s wife, Fathia Nkrumah arrived in Conakry the next day with their three children and went to the state house where they saw Nkrumah for the first time since 1966.

Nkrumah family had three children: Gamal (born 1959), Samia Yaaba (born 1960) and Sekou Nkrumah (born 1963).

The state funeral was held on Monday, May 1, 1972, and in attendance were African and world leaders including Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, President of Mauritania and Acting Organization of African Unity (OAU) President Mokhtar Ould Daddah, President of Liberia William Tolbert and representatives from Congo-Brazzaville, Sierra Leone, Dahomey, Tanzania and Algeria.

“Betrayed in Ghana, he found himself once again on free soil in Guinea, co-President of the Republic, to the great surprise of the imperialist powers enclosed in a bourgeois legalism. With Nkrumah, African unity became an irresistible force. That is why this thinker and this man of action is not a Ghanaian, but an African – and even more – just a man,” said Sekou Toure during his hour and a half speech at the funeral.

Later in the day, a five-member delegation from Ghana, headed by Colonel Benni, a member of the National Redemption Council, arrived in Conakry to attempt to persuade Touré to return Nkrumah’s body which had been buried.

Back in Ghana, the military government declared May 19 as a National Day of Mourning and a public holiday. A non-denominational service was held at the forecourt of the State House in Accra without the body. It was attended by members of the government, diplomatic corps and Nkrumah’s supporters.

The embalmed body of Kwame Nkrumah was exhumed and finally flown to Ghana on July 7, 1972, in a special Guinean Air Force plane after months of negotiation. All flags were ordered to fly at half-mast until the country’s first leader was buried.

Nkrumah’s body was laid in state the following day, Saturday, at the State House in Accra and thousands of Ghanaians paid their last respects. The body was flown on Sunday to his hometown, Nkroful, where he was buried in a vault.

After 20 years of his death, Nkrumah’s body was again exhumed on July 1, 1992, and reburied at a mausoleum in Accra built on the same grounds where he declared Ghana’s liberation on March 6, 1957.

This article by Ismail Akwei was first published on